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Water treatment


Besides treating the circulating cooling water in large industrial cooling tower systems to minimize scaling and fouling, the water should be filtered and also be dosed with biocidesand algaecides to prevent growths that could interfere with the continuous flow of the water.[12] Under certain conditions, a biofilm of micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae can grow very rapidly in the cooling water and can reduce the heat transfer efficiency of the cooling water. Biofilm can be reduced or prevented by using chlorine or other chemicals. Other technologies to control algae and biofilm include:[14][15]

  • Pulsed Technology: applies high frequency electrical pulses to break open biosolid cell membranes.
  • Ultrasonic algae and biofilm control: controls algae by emitting ultrasonic frequencies which can rupture different cell organelles such as the vacuole’s tonoplast, cell wall or membrane and the gas vesicles of blue-green algae. Specific ultrasonic vibrations around a submerged surface can inhibit bacteria from settling and thus forming a biofilm.
  • Chlorine Dioxide Generation Systems:[16] Chlorine dioxide is effective in the control of microbiological growths in industrial cooling waters under conditions unfavorable to chlorine. It is particularly effective in systems having a high pH, ammonia-nitrogen contamination, persistent slime problems, or where the microbial contamination is aggravated by contamination with vegetable or mineral oils, phenols or other high chlorine-demand producing compounds.

For closed loop evaporative towers, corrosion inhibitors may be used, but caution should be taken to meet local environmental regulations as some inhibitors use chromates.

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Article ID: 9
Category: Articles
Date added: 2013-03-17 01:07:41
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Rating (Votes): Article rated 3.1/5.0 (29)

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